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Publication on Pao pereira Reducing BPH

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May 2020 – “Pao Pereira Extract Suppresses Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Inhibiting Inflammation-Associated NFκB Signaling”

by Yu Dong, Jiakuan Liu, Zesheng Xue, Jingya Sun, Zhengnan Huang, Yifeng Jing, Bangmin Han, Bing Shen, Jun Yan and Ruimin Huang
BMC Complement Med Ther 20, 150 (2020).


Pao pereira extract reduces inflammation in BPH by inhibiting NFKappaB signaling.

Pao pereira (Pau pereira) is incredibly effective for chronic inflammation of the prostate commonly known as BPH or Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. BPH is an enlargement of the prostate caused by inflammation that is common among older men. The enlarged prostate gives rise to serious urinary problems and quality of life issues.   

A new study from Dr. Jun Yan’s group at Nanjing University in China shows that Pao pereira (Pau pereira) inhibits the control center that is activated in prostate inflammation. In BPH, this master switch, called NFKappaB, is turned on which triggers expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. These cytokines trigger proliferation of prostate cells and further enlargement of the gland. The Pao pereira (Pau pereira) extract turns the switch off so NFKappaB signaling is quieted and the levels of cytokines and remodelers are diminished.

Not only does the extract resolve the inflammatory response in BPH it also reduces viability of the two major cell types in the prostate: epithelial and stromal cells. The chronic inflammation associated with BPH damages and destabilizes the DNA in the cells which renders them susceptible to apoptosis induced by the Pao pereira (Pau pereira) extract.  Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is triggered in both epithelial and stromal cells in the BPH tissue.

Induction of apoptosis is the precise mechanism of action of the Pao extract in cancer cells which, as Dr. Beljanksi showed, contain destabilized DNA. Malins’ work revealed that cells in the BPH prostate suffer similar DNA damage even though the cells are not cancerous, but rather chronically inflamed or precancerous. The new study from Dr. Yan’s group shows that DNA damage in BPH is sufficient to result in apoptosis in the presence of the Pao pereira (Pau pereira) extract.

There is more!

A previous paper from the Nanjing group showed that Pao pereira (Pau pereira) addresses the androgen imbalance that promotes BPH as men age (read the previous study from the Nanjing group here). The extract inhibits the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone which triggers prostate enlargement. The Pao extract reduces the size of BPH prostates, lowers the levels of androgen receptor, and lowers PSA–the well-known marker for prostate inflammation. The Pao extract does all of this just as well Finasteride, but without the negative side effects associated with this drug.

Pao pereira (Pau pereira) is indeed incredibly effective for BPH.


BPH Publication May 2020


Our previous study revealed the extract from the bark of an Amazonian tree Pao pereira (Pau pereira) can suppress benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model. Herein, we examined its inhibitory effects on human BPH cells and dissect its molecular mechanism.


We applied the Pao extract to human BPH epithelial BPH-1 and prostate myofibroblast WPMY-1 cells. Cell viability, apoptosis and immunoblotting were performed, followed by gene expression profiling and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to detect the differentially expressed genes and signaling pathway induced by Pao extract. Human ex vivo BPH explant organ culture was also used to examine the effects of Pao extract on human BPH tissues.


Pao extract treatment inhibited viability and induced apoptosis in human BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells. Gene expression profiling and the following validation indicated that the expression levels of pro-apoptotic genes (eg. PCDC4, CHOP and FBXO32) were induced by Pao extract in both two cell lines. GSEA further revealed that Pao extract treatment was negatively associated with the activation of NFκB signaling. Pao extract suppressed the transcriptional activity of NFκB and down-regulated its target genes involved in inflammation (CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL12) and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling (HAS2, TNC and MMP13) in both cultured cells and human ex vivo BPH explants.


In both BPH epithelial and stromal cells, Pao extract induces apoptosis by upregulating the pro-apoptotic genes and inhibiting the inflammation-associated NFκB signaling via reducing phosphorylation of NFκB subunit RelA. Our data suggest that Pao extract may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for BPH.

Research Publication Data

BPH Publication Fig 1

Figure 1 shows Pao pereira (Pau pereira) inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells. Image a shows changes of BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells upon Pao extract treated for 48 h. Image b shows the effects of Pao pereira (Pau pereira) on cell viability by the SRB assay. 

BPH Publication Fig 2

Figure 2 shows Pao pereira (Pau pereira) induced apoptosis in BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells. Image a shows the flow cytometry analysis on BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells treated with Pao pereira (Pau pereira) using an Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining kit. Image b shows the cell death rates in BPH-1 and WPMY-1 cells treated with Pao pereira (Pau pereira). Annexin V-positive cells were defined as apoptotic cells. Image c is the effects of Pao pereira (Pau pereira) on the apoptosis-related proteins by Western blotting assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, and *** p < 0.001

BPH Publication

Figure 3 shows Pao pereira (Pau pereira) inhibited NFκB signaling pathway in human BPH tissues. Image a is a schematic diagram of the ex vivo BPH explant culture process. BPH explants were treated with 0, 250, 500 μg/ml Pao pereira (Pau pereira) for 48 h. Image b is the phosphorylation of RelA and protein expression levels of pro-apoptotic and inflammation-associated genes survival-associated proteins (PDCD4 and DDIT3/CHOP) were analyzed by Western blotting in BPH explants with Pao pereira (Pau pereira) treatment. Image c is the mRNA expression levels of target genes from NFκB signaling pathway, pro-apoptotic and inflammation-associated genes in BPH explants with Pao pereira (Pau pereira) treatment by qRT-PCR. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, and ns p ≥ 0.05

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Publication on Pao pereira Reducing BPH

December 2019 – “Pao Pereira Extract Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats by inhibiting 5α-Reductase”

by Jiakuan Liu, Tian Fang, Meiqian Li, Yuting Song, Junzun Li, Zesheng Xue, Jiaxuan Li, Dandan Bu, Wei Liu, Qinghe Zeng, Yidan Zhang, Shifeng Yun, Ruimin Huang & Jun Yan
Scientific Reports 9, 19703 (2019). Doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56145-z. E pub Dec 23 2019


BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) is so common and discussion about its causes is so frequent that we could well expect there to be good options for shrinking prostates back to normal size and restoring normal urination and prostate health. The usual options for BPH treatment are several widely prescribed drugs that work to reduce prostate size but are also associated with a variety of unpleasant side effects. New research shows that the Pao pereira plant extract, famous for its broad-spectrum anti-cancer effect, is an excellent BPH treatment — as good as the drugs — and it doesn’t induce negative side effects. The study was conducted at Nanjing University under the direction of Dr. Jun Yan.

The key is a newly discovered modulating effect of the Pao extract on enzymatic pathways that promote the development of BPH. The new paper is entitled “Pao Pereira Extract Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats by Regulating 5a-reductase”. The critical enzyme pathway is 5a-reductase which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)—a more active hormone that triggers the proliferation of prostate cells that leads to BPH. By lowering the level of 5alpha-reductase the Pao extract lowers the level of DHT thus removing the trigger for BPH.

The study confirms that the Pao extract suppresses inflammation of the prostate by affecting the hormone imbalance that occurs in older men as testosterone levels drop and 5a-reductase increases the level of DHT. The extract is also effective at halting the overgrowth of BPH cells in the prostate by inducing cell cycle arrest. It also lowers the level of androgen receptor that mediates hormonal induction of BPH and reduces the level of PSA, the well-known marker for prostate inflammation and cancer. And referring to cancer, by lowering prostate inflammation Pao pereira extract lowers the risk of progression to prostate cancer.

The experiments were conducted both in vitro and in vivo and no evidence for side effects were seen. The data indicates that the Pao pereira extract provides an ideal therapeutic response for BPH that can be taken without concern for negative side effects. This new work, together with previous research, shows that Pao pereira is effective against all stages of prostate health problems including chronic inflammation, prostate cancer and advanced prostate cancer.


Scientific Reports Pao Pereira Reduces BPH

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases in the urinary system of elderly men. Pao extract is an herbal preparation of the bark of the Amazon rainforest tree Pao Pereira (Geissospermum vellosii), which was reported to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation. Herein we investigated the therapeutic potential of Pao extract against BPH development in a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. The administration of testosterone induced the prostate enlargement, compared with the sham operated group with vehicle treatment. The BPH/Pao group showed reduced prostate weight comparable with BPH/finasteride group. Notably, Pao treatment did not significantly reduce body weights and sperm number of rats, compared with the control group. Furthermore, Pao extract treatment reduced the proliferative index in prostate glands and testosterone-induced expression levels of AR, as well as androgen-associated proteins such as SRD5A1 and PSA. Moreover, Pao extract and its active component, flavopereirine, induced cytotoxicity on human prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner with G2/M arrest. Consistently, Pao extract and flavopereirine suppressed the expression levels of SRD5A1, AR and PSA, respectively. Together, these data demonstrated that Pao extract suppresses testosterone-induced BPH development through inhibiting AR activity and expression, and suggested that Pao extract may be a promising and relative safe agent for BPH Treatment.

BPH Treatment & Pao Pereira Data

BPH Treatment Pao Pereria

The figure above shows the effects of Pao extract on rat prostate. (a) Schematic presentation of experimental procedure. Sham group as control group: After sham operation, rats were treated with i.p. injection of corn oil and oral saline; BPH/Veh group: After castration, rats were i.p. injection of 5 mg/kg testosterone propionate (TP) daily and were intragastric administrated with saline; BPH/FN (Finasteride) and BPH/Pao groups: After castration, rats were i.p. injection of 5 mg/kg TP and intragastic administration of finasteride (10 mg/kg) or Pao extract (20 mg/kg) daily for 28 days, respectively. (b) The representative photos of the dissected prostate glands from four groups. (c) The weight of whole prostate without urethra. (d) The changes in the rat prostate index of four groups. (e) Effect of Pao extract on body weight. n = 5; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.

BPH Treatment Pao Pereria Figure 2

The figure above shows the histopathological analysis of the prostate tissues in the testosterone-induced BPH rats after being treated with Pao extract. (a) H&E staining of the sham control, BPH/Veh, BPH/FN and BPH/Pao groups. The sections were photographed by microscope. The scale bars in photos above are 50 μm and in photos below are 20 μm. (b) Quantification of the thickness of epithelial layers; (c) quantification of the fold changes of the lumen areas among four groups. ***p < 0.001.

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Publication on the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Pao pereira

November 2013 – “Pao pereira Extract Suppresses Castration- Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, Survival and Invasion Through Inhibition of NFkB Signaling”

by Cunjie Chang, BS, Wei Zhao, MS, Bingxian Xie, BS, Yongming Deng, BS, Tao Han, BM, Yangyan Cui, BS, Yundong Dai, BS, Zhen Zhang, BS, Jimin Gao, MD, PhD, Hongqian Guo, MD, PhD, and Jun Yan, PhD.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2014 May;13(3):249-58. Doi: 10.1177/1534735413510557. Epub 2013 Nov 27

Nanjing_UniversityDr. Jun Yan from Dr. Aaron Katz’s laboratory at Columbia University Medical Center is continuing research (University of Nanjing, China) on the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of Pao Pereira (extract provided by Natural Source International, Ltd.).

Dr. Jun Yan uses up to date techniques to determine how the Pao pereira extract exerts its effects, what molecules it influences in the cell and what responses are triggered. The publication shows that this Pao pereira extract is effective against prostate cancer cells that no longer respond to agents that interfere with hormone action.

Such drugs are specifically designed to limit the effects of testosterone, the male hormone that stimulates the growth of prostate cancer cells. Over time, prostate tumors become resistant to these anti-hormones indicting that the cancer has become more aggressive. The study shows that these hormone independent prostate cancer cells are susceptible to the growth inhibition of Pao pereira as are prostate cancers that still respond to testosterone. The study also revealed that Pao pereira acts on a signaling complex called NFkB—a control center regulating cell survival, proliferation, and invasion. The results suggest that Pao pereira will be useful for men with advanced hormone-independent prostate cancer.

Abstractrauwolfia and ovarian cancer

Pao extract, derived from bark of Amazonian tree Pao Pereira, is commonly used in South American medicine. A recent study showed that Pao extract repressed androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cell growth. We hypothesize that Pao extract asserts its anticancer effects on metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells. Pao extract suppressed CRPC PC3 cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner, through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Pao extract treatment induced cell cycle inhibitors, p21 and p27, and repressed PCNA, Cyclin A and Cyclin D1. Furthermore, Pao extract also induced the upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax, reduction of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL , and XIAP expression, which were associated with the cleavage of PARP protein. Moreover, Pao extract treatment blocked PC3 cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, Pao extract suppressed phosphorylation levels of AKT and NFκB/p65, NFκB DNA binding activity, and luciferase reporter activity. Pao inhibited TNFα-induced relocation of NFκB/p65 to the nucleus, NFκB/p65 transcription activity, and MMP9 activity as shown by zymography. Consistently, NFκB/p65 downstream targets involved in proliferation (Cyclin D1), survival (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL , and XIAP), and metastasis (VEGFa, MMP9, and GROα/CXCL1) were also downregulated by Pao extract. Finally, forced expression of NFκB/p65 reversed the growth inhibitory effect of Pao extract. Overall, Pao extract induced cell growth arrest, apoptosis, partially through inhibiting NFκB activation in prostate cancer cells. These data suggest that Pao extract may be beneficial for protection against CRPC.

Pao pereira Extract Suppresses Castration- Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell Growth, Survival and Invasion Through Inhibition of NFkB Signaling”

Clinical Trial on the synergistic effects of Rauwolfia vomitoria and Pao pereira on elevated PSA

April-May 2010 – “Two Herbal Extracts for Protecting Prostate Cell DNA – IMCJ April 2010”

by Melissa Burchill, RN, CDN – IMCJ (Integrative Medicine: A Clinician’s Journal)

A clinical trial began in 2006 and enrolled some 42 patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) readings (averaging 8 to 10 on the PSA scale) and a negative biopsy a group of men that in the industrialized world numbers in the millions.

One of the primary goals of the clinical trial was to determine if the plant extracts were safe. The research team did a dose escalation trial. The trial started at two capsules but has gone much higher, and so far all doses tested have been without side effects.

“We now know that this combination of Beljanski’s extracts can significantly lower PSAs in a 12-month period. Also we have had very few patients convert to prostate cancer and have found a number of patients who have had a dramatic improvement in their urinary symptoms. Men are clearly having less frequency, better streams and better flow rates. They are not getting up at night as often.

“The bottom line is that it appears our early results are reason to be very encouraged by Beljanski’s extracts’ ability to lower PSA and help older men urinate better, too.”

So how important are Beljanski’s findings to men’s health? “There are a lot of men undergoing PSA screening,” Dr. Katz said. “The PSA supposedly stands for “prostate specific antigen” but I say it is more accurately “patient stimulated anxiety.” When a man’s PSA is elevated, there could be many reasons for this, having nothing to do with cancer. But what we know now is that these cells that are growing can develop into cancer, and we would like to stop them from doing so. Also if the cells keep growing even in benign fashion, they will grow around the urethra and push in on it and provoke urinary symptoms in men. That’s where we want to lower the growth and division of prostate cells and that’s what we think we have shown with the extracts.

Source: “The Columbia Connection” by L.Stephen Coles, MD., Ph.D. The Doctors’ prescription for healthy living


Two Herbal extract prostateDuring his 50 years of research, biochemist and molecular biologist Mirko Beljanski, PhD, discovered 2 plant extracts that appeared to inhibit the growth of cancer cells without causing any harmful side effects. The research on these products and the preliminary indications from an ongoing clinical trial are the subject of this article. In summary, Dr Beljanski made great contributions to our understanding of basic life processes and cancer. He determined that, quite apart from the occurrence of genetic mutations of DNA, carcinogens can bind to and damage the DNA double helix, thus creating a destabilized and dysfunctional structure. Dr Beljanski associated this destabilization of the DNA with excess replication, aberrant gene expression, and increased cell multiplication, which are processes that may ultimately lead to cancer. To determine which substances cause DNA destabilization and thus can be considered carcinogenic, Dr Beljanski developed what he called the Oncotest as a way to determine the effect of a compound on the structure of DNA; compounds that enhanced either UV absorption or the level of in vitro DNA synthesis were considered to have carcinogenic properties. Through use of the Oncotest, Dr Beljanski also discovered 2 natural molecules from the tropical plants Pao pereira and Rauwolfia vomitoria that specifically recognized and bound to the damaged double helix, thus preventing the process of cell division. In vitro, these 2 natural extracts have been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a wide variety of cancer cells without affecting healthy cells. Experiments with animals confirmed these results, and preliminary work with humans has provided similar indications. Clinical studies using a combination of the pao and rauwolfia extracts have yielded encouraging preliminary results by reducing prostate-specific antigen levels in men and improving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Two Herbal Extracts for Protecting Prostate Cell DNA – IMCJ April 2010